Application Notes & Technical Papers - #2
Lasers to ZigBee

RF Microwave Wireless High Frequency Application Note & Technical Paper Websites (page 2) - RF CafeThese application notes on vendor sites are some of the fastest moving targets on the web. If you try to hit one of the links and it is gone, please make an attempt to determine the new URL and notify me. Thank you. Due to how large the original page has grown, multiple pages are now used.

Page 1: Absorbers - Interference       Page 2: Lasers - ZigBee

Application Notes & Technical Papers by Company / Source Name



Cooled DFB Lasers in RF over Fiber Applications
Practical 10 dB improvement of SFDR, stable gain over full OTR, flat frequency response, higher IP3. From Optical Zonu


LCD General Information
From Lumex.

LED Notes
By Data Display Products.

LED Design Guides
Tech Notes on laser diodes, LCD displays & modules, color & light, gas tubes, miniature & subminiature incandescent lamps, and solid state lamps, by The LED Light.

Machined Parts

Pro Tips E-Newsletter
Machined parts advice - Using radii wisely, Smart use of GTOLS Geometry that is cheap to make, Tolerances that are easy to hold and cost less, Designing undercuts, Material selection and size, Mistakes to avoid when modeling angles.

Materials Properties

Direct FETTM Technology Materials and Practices Application Note
Application Note AN-1050 from International Rectifier.

High Voltage Properties of Insulating Materials Measured in the Ultra Wideband
Applied Physical Electronics.


Microwave and Millimeter Signal Measurements: Tools and Best Practices
by Agilent Technologies


Principles of Metrology
by Fluke

Techniques for Precise Measurement Calibrations in the Field
by Agilent

Techniques for Precise Cable and Antenna Measurements in the Field
by Agilent

Mixers / Modulators

Mixology 101: Mixers and Modulators in High-Speed Communications

Mixers & Oscillators
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English).

Quadrature Modulators
By RF Micro Devices.

Mixer Spurious Products
A Graphical Approach To Mixer Spurious Analysis by Kirt Blattenberger.

Selecting and Using Miniature Microstrip and Surface-mount Mixers
From Spectrum Microwave.


Quadrature ( I-Q ) Modulation Tutorial

Driving the QM Series Quadrature Modulators
This note outlines several methods of interfacing the QM series modulators to single-ended and differential I/Q sources including modern D/A converters. From Polyphase Microwave.

Interface Circuits for the QD Series Quadrature Demodulators
This application note presents several circuit ideas for interfacing the differential I/Q outputs of the QD series demodulators to single-ended loads and modern differential A/D converters. From Polyphase Microwave.

Modulation Techniques for Low-Cost RF Data Links
In radio frequency applications there are many techniques to choose from. Some, such as Carrier-Present Carrier-Absent (CPCA), are very simple and inexpensive to implement, while others, such Gaussian Minimized Shift Keying (GMSK), allow for very efficient use of bandwidth at high data rates. Other modulation techniques include Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Quadrature Modulation, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). By Linx Technologies.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
This tutorial discusses Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (COFDMA) technique.


Choosing Position Sensors for Use with SQUIGGLE Motors
From New Scale Technologies.

Creating Closed-loop Positioning Systems Using SQUIGGLE Motors
This application note provides an overview of SQUIGGLE motors in closed-loop systems. From New Scale Technologies.

Multipath Fading Phenomena
Understanding Terrestrial Multipath Fading Phenomena  by Microwaves & RF.

Reducing Motor Noise
From Team Delta.

Use of Cryogenic SQUIGGLE Motors for Active Alignment of Cooled Optics in Cryogenic Sensor Applications
From New Scale Technologies.

Network Analyzers

X-Parameter App Notes
X-parameters are the new s-parameters for nonlinear characterization. From  Agilent.

360B/37XXXA/B Series Vector Network Analyzers
From Anritzu.

7 Reasons to Upgrade from your 8753 to an ENA Network Analyzer
From Agilent Technologies.

Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis
by Agilent.

Verifying the Performance of Vector Network Analyzers
From Maury Microwave.

Noise & Noise Figure

Noise Figure Tutorial
Interactive, Flash-based app for visualizing how noise figure is affected by system parameters.

Thermal Noise Power Tutorial
Interactive, Flash-based app for visualizing thermal noise power in a system.

What is Noise?
From Noisewave

Understanding Noise Parameter Measurement
by Lawrence Dunleavy

Improving Noise Figure Measurement
From Noise Com.

BIT of Balanced Amplifiers
From Noise Com.

Calibrating Spectrum Analyzers With a Noise Source
From Noise Com.

Gain Bandwidth Product Tests To Cut Production Costs
From Noise Com.

Noise Analysis of Microwave Systems
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English).

Noise Basics
From Noise Com.

Noise Diodes Randomize Quantization Errors in A/D Converters
From Noise Com.

Noise, Receiver Equation
The Receiver Noise Equation: A Method for System Level Design of an RF Receiver - Technical Feature by Microwave Journal.

Noise Figure
Spectrum Analyzer Measurements and Noise application note by Agilent Technologies.

Noise Figure, Relating to Real World
Relating Cascaded Noise Figures to Realworld Performance, by By Rulon VanDyke, Eagleware Corp.

Noise Figure Uncertainty
Calculate The Uncertainty Of NF Measurements, by Duncan Boyd, Hewlett-Packard Co.

Noise-Injection Radiometers
From Noise Com.

Passive Component Models
Understanding Basic Analog - Passive Devices, by Texas Instruments.

PCB Layout Guide for RF/Microwave
RF/Microwave PC Board Design and Layout, by Rick Hartley, L-3 Avionics Systems.

PCB Partitioning and Layout, Mixed-Signal
Partitioning and Layout of a Mixed-Signal PCB, by Henry W. Ott.

Testing Amplifier Linearity With Noise Power Ratio
From Noise Com.


Hybrid Voltage Controlled Oscillators
From Spectrum Microwave.

Oscilloscope Fundamentals - Agilent App Note 1606
This application note provides an overview of oscilloscope fundamentals. You will learn what an oscilloscope is and how it operates.

Phase Noise & Jitter

Understanding Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Calibration Applications
by Fluke

Know the Nuances of SSB Phase Noise
by Jack Browne

Phase Noise
Phase Noise Reference, by Applied Radio Labs.

Phase Noise
by Vectron International.

Phase Noise Measurement of Z-Comm VCOs
From Z-Communications Inc.

Phase Noise Measurement of Z-Comm SFS Series
From Z-Communications Inc.

Phase Noise Measurements & Jitter Analysis
The Agilent JS-1000 Performance Jitter Solution is a Phase Noise System that measures clock jitter characteristics.

Phase Noise Prediction
Accurate Phase Noise Prediction in PLL Synthesizers, by Lance Lascari.

Measuring Jitter in Digital Systems
Agilent App Note 1448-1.

Phase Shifters

Phase Shifters
Phase Shifters/Frequency Translators by Herley.

Piezoelectric Devices

CAD For Circuits with Piezoelectric Devices
Designing with Piezoelectric Devices by Eagleware.

Power Meters & Monitors

Seven Practices to Prevent Damaging Power Meters and Power Sensors
by Agilent

High-speed Measurement of RF Power Sweeps
From Boonton.

Power Meters and Monitors
From Narda Microwave East.

4 Steps for Making Better Power Measurements
by Agilent

Power Splitters / Combiners

Power Dividers
From Narda Microwave East.

Power Dividers & Directional Couplers
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Power Dividers as Combiners
Why most power dividers are not suitable for combining, from MECA Electronics.

Power Splitter/Combiner
Power Dividers and Combiners, by Synergy Microwave.

Reactive Splitters
Basic introduction, common applications and information on why reactive splitters should not be used in combining applications, from MECA Electronics.


Radar Simulations in MATLAB
Comprehensive set of *.m files and function, including GUI, to calculate and plot Radar design and analysis issues. This include, the radar equation, radar waveform analysis, pulse compression, matched filter, stretch processing, HRR, phased arrays, Kalaman filter, MTI, clutter analysis, Swerling models and Pd calculations, PRN and Barker codes, SAR, etc.


Testing Modern Radios
Solutions for designing Software Defined Radios that employ legacy and modern modulation schemes with frequency hopping techniques. By Tektronix.

Radiation / Field Measurement

ORL Measurements in Field Applications
From EXFO Electro-Optical Engineering, by Marie-Claude Michel.

Radiation Hazard Measuring Systems
By Herley.

Receiver Design

Radio Design 101
Basics of Designing a Digital Radio Receiver (Radio 101), Brad Brannon, Analog Devices.

Receiver Design
Understanding and Enhancing Sensitivity in Receivers for Wireless Applications, by Texas Instruments.

Link Calculations: Optimization Part II
Optimizing Link Performance, Cost and Interchangeability by Predicting Residual BER, by Microwave Journal.


Designing a Boost-Switching Regulator with the MCP1650
From Microchip Technology Inc.

Improved Power Supply Rejection For IC Linear Regulators
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Linear Regulators in Portable Applications
Application note from Maxim Integrated Products.

Linear Regulators: Theory of Operation and Compensation
From National Semiconductor.

Low Resistance Measurement Errors
The 2-wire versus 4-wire (Kelvin connection) debate, including the offset-compensated ohms method, by QuadTech.

Part I
Part II
MEMS for RF/Microwave Wireless Applications: The Next Wave - An overview of RF/microwave MEMS technology.

Millimeter Wave Components
18-40 GHz by Herley.

Resonant Circuits:
Oscillators, Synthesizers, VCOs

Crystal Oscillator Circuit Design
A good transistor-level design tutorial - many topologies, 33 pages. By AXAL.

Crystal Oscillator Model _xtals_res.htm
Simulation of crystals and resonators

Dielectric Resonators, Introduction
By Trans-Tech.

Free Running Oscillators
From Narda Microwave East.

Oscillators application notes by Herley.

Quartz Crystal Oscillators Tutorial VIG-TUTORIAL.PDF#search='quartz crystal oscillators report
The mother of all quartz crystal oscillator tutorials - 287 pages, courtesy of the U.S. Army

Resonant Circuits
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English).

Understanding Synthesizer Designs & Specifications
From Spinnaker Microwave.

Understanding VCO Specifications
This will help to specify your microwave source. From Spinnaker Microwave.

VCO - Differential Design
By Skyworks.

VCO - Low Phase Noise Design
By Skyworks.

VCO Modeling & Simulation in WinSPICE3
Application note compliments of Silicon Devices (UK) Limited

VCO Soldering Notes
Guidelines from Spinnaker Microwave.

RF Basics

RF 101 Information for the RF Challenged
This application note goes to great lengths to remove the mysteries of RF. Please don't mistake the ease with which you may grasp these basic principals for the effort required to actually execute an RF design. Nooo, noooo, kiddies, don't try this at home. At least not if your jobs on the line. The science of RF is unlike any other area of discipline in electronics. By Linx Technologies.


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Overview
This technical brief focuses on RFID automatic identification technologies which utilize low-power, short-range wireless communications technology to provide radically enhanced data handling capabilities. By Tektronix.

RF System Planning:
Cascade Analysis - Gain, NF, IP3, IP2, P1dB, Intermods

FCC Part 15 Rules
From the ARRL site.

Path Loss Model NETEX Presentation.pdf
UWB Channel Measurements and Modeling for DARPA NETEX, by Virginia Tech.

Half-IF (2x2 product)
By Maxim.

FM Broadcast RF Systems
A collection of technical papers and data about FM broadcast antenna and transmitter systems, by Richard Fry.

Prototyping Techniques, RF
RF Prototyping Techniques, by Christian Bourde, Jeff Fuller & Steve Long, University of San Diego, CA.

Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
By Maxim.

RF/Microwave Theory Files
Many brief tutorials that include equations.

RF System Design
Receiver budget analysis, by Peter Kinget, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies.

Sampling Theory

See A/D & D/A Converters

Diodes, Transistors, BJTs, FETs

350 mA Buck Boost LED Driver using Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), High Side Current Sensing and a NCP3063 Controller
From ON Semiconductor.

The Unusual Diode FAQ, by Avtech.

Microwave Integrated Circuits / Multifunction Assemblies (MIC and MFA)
From Narda Microwave East.

Mixer and Detector Diodes
From Skyworks.

PIN Diode Basics
From Skyworks.

PIN Diodes
Design With PIN Diodes by Skyworks.

PIN Diodes
Design With PIN Diodes by Gerald Hiller, M/A-Com.

Varactor Diodes
From Skyworks.


Practical Electromagnetic Shielding Primer
This is a great short note on RF shielding that includes illustrations and a few basic equations. By Clemson University.

PAMS (Portable Attenuation Measurement System)
PAMS measures shield level and is ideal for shielded enclosure caretakers whether the application is ensuring equipment radiation is effectively attenuated, equipment is protected from external interfering radiation, or electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection.

Shielding and Guarding: How to Exclude Interference-Type Noise Application Note (AN-347)
From Analog Devices.

Signal Generators

3-in-1 Signal Generator
From Signal Forge.

MG3700A Vector Signal Generator Waveform Combining Function
By Anritzu Corporation.

SG-5000A Signal Generator User Manual
Colby Instruments SG-5000A Signal Generator User Manual

Signal Generator (Source) Basics
By Agilent Technologies.

Signal Generator Spectral Purity
By Agilent Technologies.


EMC Simulation Techniques for Printed Circuit Boards
By Dr. Al Wexler.

Smart Meters

Smart Meters and Smart Meter Systems: A Metering Industry Perspective
Edison Electric Institute

A Discussion of Smart Meters And RF Exposure Issues
Edison Electric Institute

Smith Chart - Impedance Matching

Impedance Matching and the Smith Chart – The Fundamentals
Great fundamentals tutorial in RF Design, by K-C Chan & A. Harter

Smith Chart Flash Presentation
Brent Locher
An interactive Smith Chart tutorial with 5 different flash programs that contain a lot of embedded audio.

Introduction to Smith Charts
Dr. Russell P. Jedlicka.

Smith Chart
Here is a long list of great application notes and presentation for the Smith Chart.

Smith Chart for Excel
By Kirt Blattenberger.

Impedance Matching
Impedance Matching Techniques for Mixers and Detectors, by Agilent Technologies.

Impedance Matching and the Smith Chart: The Fundamentals
Tutorial on RF impedance matching using the Smith Chart. Examples are shown plotting reflection coefficients, impedances and admittances. A sample matching network of the MAX2472 is designed at 900MHz using graphical methods. By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Impedance Matching - Smith Chart
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English).

Smith Chart Tutorial
This is one of the nicest presentations By Professor Amanogawa.

Smith Chart Tutorial Part 1

Smith Chart Tutorial Part 2

Software / Modeling

Component Model Building for first-Pass Results
Modelithics paper on creating accurate component models based on substrate parameters, using both vendor parameters and measured results.


Cree® XLamp® LED Soldering & Handling
This application note applies to XLamp 4550 & XR family (XR-E, XR-C & XR) LEDs.

Soldering Literature Database
From the Ambrell Group Application Labs.

Soldering Tip
By Kirt Blattenberger.

Solder Reflow Information
From Skyworks.


Converting S-Parameters from 50Ω to 75Ω Impedance
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Displaying S-parameters via the Si9000 Smith Chart
From Polar Instruments Ltd.

S-Parameter Design
By Agilent Technologies.

S-Parameter Design
for Faster, More Accurate Network Design
Application Note 95-1, by Agilent Technologies

S-Parameters of PCB Interconnects
(Correctly Correlating)
By Tan Tran, Intel, and Donald Telian, Cadence

TDR and S-parameters Measurements – How Much Performance Do You Need?

Spectrum Analysis

Fundamentals of Real-Time Spectrum Analysis
A 42-page tutorial by Tektronix. Given the challenge of characterizing the behavior of today’s RF devices, it is necessary to understand how frequency, amplitude, and modulation parameters behave over short and long periods of time. In these cases, using traditional tools like swept spectrum analyzers (SA) and vector signal analyzers (VSA) might provide snapshots of the signal in the frequency domain and the modulation domain, but this is often not enough information to confidently describe the dynamic RF signals produced by the device.

IBOC signal measurement by using Boonton’s 9102 Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
From Boonton Electronics.

Spectrum Analyzer Accuracy
By Agilent Technologies.

Using Spectrum Analyzers for Audio Amplifier Design
Application note from Pico Technology.

SpecAn App Note
A Simple Scalar Network Analyzer System Automated With TESTLINK, by Eagleware.

Spectrum Analyzer Speed
By Agilent Technologies.

Spread Spectrum

An Introduction to Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Communications
A tutorial overview of spread spectrum principles. By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Spread Spectrum & CDMA Theory
Spread spectrum systems & theory, PN codes & generators, correlation & correlators, PN synchronization, PN acquisition, PN tracking modulation (GMSK, MSK, ...), multipath fading. By New Wave Instruments.

Spread-Spectrum Clock Oscillators Lower EMI
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.


A Guide To RF Switching Systems
Understanding the fundamentals of these complex systems and the ways in which application requirements impact cost and performance.

Coaxial Electromechanical Switches: How Operating Life and Repeatability of Agilent’s Electromechanical Switches Minimize System Uncertainty
By Agilent Technologies.

Creating Your Own RF Switching System
The purpose with this Application Note is to introduce an alternative way of meeting switching needs by showing how to design your own RF switch solution using Dow-Key CANBus Switches together with a Dow-Key Switch Controller Kit.

Matrix Switches Blocking vs. Non-blocking
This article explores the three most basic types of matrix switches - from JFW.

Solid State Switch Products
From Narda Microwave East.

Switch Drivers (PIN, FET)
Drivers for GaAs FET Switches and Digital Attenuators, by M/A-COM.

Switching Power Supply Inductor Selection
By Chris Likely, Cooper Electronic Technologies, Power Electronics Technology magazine.

By Herley.

Substrates / PCBs
Microstrip, Stripline, Suspended, Vias

Striplines, Suspended
Reviewing the Basics of Suspended Striplines tutorial by Microwave Journal.

Flip-Chip Tutorials - New tutorials are posted monthly, except in August, compliments of George A. Riley, PhD, "Dr. Flip Chip." More than 60 currently available.

Power Plane & Ground Design for RF PCBs
Power supply and ground design for WiFi transceiver, by By Roger Bremer, Tracey Chavers, Zhongmin Yu, RF Design magazine.


See Resonant Circuits


50 Ohm Chip Resistor Termination Narrow Band Matching
From Aeroflex-KDI Resistor Products.

From Narda Microwave East.

Thermal Analysis

Thermal Analysis
Power System Thermal Design by Artesyn.

Time and Frequency Domains
A nicely done brief tutorial by Gary Breed, editor of High Frequency Electronics magazine. Thermocouples

Introduction to Thermocouples
By Dataforth Corp.

Practical Thermocouple Temperature Measurements
By Dataforth Corp.

Thermocouple Application Note
From Pico Technology.

Thermal Management Solutions for Printed Circuit Boards Used in Digital and RF Power Electronics and LED Assemblies
From American Standard Circuits


How to Stop Inrush Current
This application note provides some design considerations for inrush current protection of the AC current applicable to Switching Power Supplies (SPS). The solution suggested in this application note uses an NTC Power Thermistor in separate legs of the power supply circuit. By Ametherm.

Transformer Inrush Current Protection
This application note provides a convenient solution to deal with the problem of inrush current exceeding saturation current in transformers. The solution uses an NTC Thermistor in series with the primary. By Ametherm.

Thermistor Protection for a Precharge Circuit on Lithium Ion Batteries
When a battery is connected to a load with capacitive input, there is an inrush current surge as the capacitance is charging to the battery voltage. The input current depends on the input capacitance; the larger the batteries and the more powerful the load, the larger the input capacitance. By Ametherm.


Application Notes on Rectifier Transformers
From Toroid Corporation of Maryland.

Rilton Variable Transformers
From Farnell.

Secondary-Side Transformer Termination Improves Gain Flatness in High-Speed ADCs
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Signal Transformers
Signal Transformer Application and Specification, by CoilCraft.

Transmission Lines

Introduction to Common Printed Circuit Transmission Lines
By Maxim Integrated Products.

Transmission Line Fundamentals
Gain a better understanding of transmission lines. By Agilent.

Transmission Lines
Waves and Impedances, from University of San Diego, CA.

Transmission Lines, Principles of
An online tutorial provided by Integrated Publishing website

Transmission Lines & Waveguides
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)


Ferrite Rod Antennas for RF-identification Transponders
By Philips Magnetic Products.


A series of design and testing notes by Tektronix
LNA for WCDMA (UMTS) Features Gain Step
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Ultra Wideband (UWB)

Creating Calibrated UWB WiMedia Signals
From Tektronix.

Solutions for MB-OFDM Ultra-wideband
From Agilent Technologies.

Ultra-Wideband Communication RF Measurements
From Agilent Technologies.

UWB Antenna Measurements with the 20 GHz E5071C ENA Network Analyzer
From Agilent Technologies.

Voltage Regulators

A Designer's Guide to the L200 Voltage Regulator
From SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics.

The Case for Voltage Regulators When You Already Have UPS or Stand-By Power
From Electronic Specialists, Inc.

Digital Designerʼs Guide to Linear Voltage Regulators and Thermal Management
From Texas Instruments, Inc.

LM78S40 Switching Voltage Regulator Applications
From National Semiconductor.

Voltage Regulator Handbook
By ON Semiconductor.


A Discussion of Ferrite Material Characteristics in Waveguide Digital Phase Shifters
This article discusses ferrite material characteristics relevant to one type, the waveguide digital ferrite phase shifter. From Skyworks.

Basic Parameters of Coplanar-strip Waveguides on Multilayer Dielectric/semiconductor Substrates
By Gevorgian, S.; Berg, H.; Jacobsson, H.; Lewin, T. from IEEE.

Characterizing The Optical Properties Of Planar Waveguides, Optical Chips And Planar Light Circuits
From Fiber Optics Online.

Optical Waveguide Characterization
From Metricon Corporation.

From Narda Microwave East.

Waveguide Theory
This is a very good basics course on waveguide theory - from the Fast Neutron Research Facility

Waveguide Tuning
By Gerling Applied Engineering.


CDMA2000 Design & Performance
February 2005 RF Design magazine, by Bill Schofield and Brad Brannon

CDMA & Spread Spectrum Theory
Spread spectrum systems & theory, PN codes & generators, correlation & correlators, PN synchronization, PN acquisition, PN tracking modulation (GMSK, MSK, ...), multipath fading. By New Wave Instruments.

Wire Bonding

Wire Bonding
By Mike Greenelsh, California Fine Wire.

Wireless Networks & Systems

Fundamentals of Interference in Wireless Networks
From Anritsu.

A nice explanation, from University of Hull.

Unraveling Modulation Quality in Mobile WiMAX™ Uplink and Downlink with Multiple Zones and Bursts
White paper By: VISWANATHAN GANESAN WiMAX Application Engineer, Agilent Technologies. This article delves into the complexities associated with digital demodulation of Mobile WiMAX uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) signals. It covers the modulation quality measurement required for Mobile WiMAX transmitters and provides a recommendation of the best tools to use for developing Mobile WiMAX products.


AWR White Paper Brings Emerging Nonlinear Device Models into Focus

Understanding X-Parameter Nonlinear Measurements

Generating X-Parameters from Circuit-Level Designs

Using X-Parameters to Make Nonlinear Measurements of High-Power Amplifiers
by Agilent


ZigBee Applications for Developers for Applications Developers.pdf
FlexiPanel makes a lot of turnkey modules for ZigBee and Bluetooth applications.

Zigbee Transceiver
RF Design article by Khanh Tuan Le.